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The modernization of the Energy sector has been witnessing fundamental changes, with the information and communication technologies (ICT) playing a key role. In the last decade distributed renewable energy resources have been paving the way for the highly needed decarbonisation of the sector. With it came the inclusion of advanced management and control schemes, which provide improved monitoring and automation capability to the energy grids and the ability to support new services and functionalities. The concept of smart grid goes one-step further, relying on intelligent schemes that run on ICT infrastructure capable of coping with different operational requirements and ensuring the necessary data exchange. On one hand, it is necessary to preserve the robustness of the electric grid characterised by high levels of reliability, availability and security and, on the other hand, it is possible to add the flexibility brought by adaptable and scalable mechanisms of energy resources to deal with the dynamic nature and growth of the grid.
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